specific gravity is a measure of density relative to the density of a reference substance. the reference material could be anything, but the most common reference is pure water. if a material has a specific gravity less than 1, it will float on water. specific gravity is often abbreviated as sp gr.
wagner has compiled species average specific gravity sg values wood volume at 12% moisture content mc and oven-dry weight from industry-accepted 3rd-party sources usda forest products laboratory as an example and provides this list for free with no implied warranty.
for manufacturing plywood and establishing plywood or osb properties, respectively. these standards have evolved over time from earlier documents ohalloran 1979, 1980; apa 1981 and represent a consensus opinion of the mak-ers, sellers, and users of plywood products as well as other concerned parties.
wood species specific gravity, g, for wood connection design specific gravities for north american wood species species combination specific gravity, g aspen 0.39 alaska cedar 0.47 alaska hemlock 0.46 alaska spruce 0.41 alaska yellow cedar 0.46 balsam fir 0.36 beech-birch-hickory 0.71 coast sitka spruce 0.43 cottonwood 0.41
when designing a metal component, engineers have to consider how susceptible certain alloys are to corrosion in the final products operating environment. in a recent study by nace national association of corrosion engineers , it was estimated that the direct and indirect costs of corrosion in the united states is approximately 6.2% of the gdp.
pvc - polyvinyl chloride. strong and rigid; resistant to a variety of acids and bases; may be damaged by some solvents and chlorinated hydrocarbons; maximum usable temperature 140 o f 60 o c usable for water, gas and drainage systems; not usable in hot water systems; cpvc - chlorinated polyvinyl chloride. similar to pvc - but designed for water up to 180 o f 82 o c
among maple, birch, poplar and ash, sweet birch has the highest specific gravity at 0.65, with a janka measurement of 1,470. blue ash has the highest janka rating at 2,030, with a specific gravity of 0.58. sugar maple, black maple, sweet birch, yellow birch and white ash are all strong hardwoods.
specific gravity when strength is paramount, grain direction may not be your only consideration. some species of wood are naturally stronger than others. chairmakers, for example, typically use maple, birch, and hickory for legs, rungs, and spindles.
so the density of plywood is mainly depended on the timer species of the core veneers . the density of different plywood. usually 4 kinds of timber species are used to manufacture the cores of plywood film faced plywood , i.e. birch, hardwood, pine and poplar. the density of different plywood is listed as follows:
specific gravity static bending properties modulus of elasticity modulus of rupture gpa ×106 lb in 2 mpa lb in 2 clear wood white oak 0.68 12.27 1.78 104.80 15,200 red maple 0.54 11.31 1.64 92.39 13,400 douglas-fir coastal 0.48 13.44 1.95 85.49 12,400
density, specific weight and specific gravity - an introduction to density, specific gravity and specific weight - formulas with examples; dumping or tipping angles - tipping angles for some common materials like ashes, sand, earth, shingles
* these are averages. specific gravity varies with material. check with material supplier, and then use formula below. formula for computing weight per square foot for other materials and different specific gravities use: specific gravity x 5.2 x thickness = lbs/sf example: abs = 1.04 x 5.2 x .125 = .676 lbs/sf
polyethylene is a polyolefin. polyolefins are high molecular weight hydrocarbons. polyolefins include linear low density polyethylene, low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene, polypropylene copolymer, polypropylene, and polymethyl pentene. these are the only plastics that have a lower specific gravity than water.
specific gravity 5/16' shank lag screw 3/8' shank lag screw 10 wood screw douglas fir-larch 0.5 340 390 173 douglas fir-south 0.46 301 344 146 englemann spruce-lodgepole pine 0.46 301 344 146 hem-fir 0.43 271 311 128 hem-fir north 0.46 301 344 146 southern pine 0.55 393 451 209 spruce-pine-fir 0.42 262 301 122 spruce-pine-fir south 0.36 209 238 90
additionally, pvc provides these benefits while standing as one of the lightest plastics available on the market today - though it is unusual in the sense that the density of the material depends on its thickness. sheets from one to six millimeters measure .70 grams per cubic centimeter, while those ranging from 10 to 25 millimeters weigh in at a feather-light .55 grams per cubic centimeter.
plywood is a simple material made by glueing together thin sheets of wood, known as veneers or plies. these basic elements have remained broadly the same throughout its history. the most
specific gravity of 0.49 or greater. for plywood with other species, multiple the tabulated uplift values by 0.90. d osb panels shall overlap the top member of the double top plate and bottom plate by 38 mm 1-1/2 in. and a single row of
density is calculated by dividing the mass of the material by the volume and is normally expressed in g/cm3. specific gravity sg is defined as the ratio of density of the material to the density of water 1 g/cm3 at a specified temperature. a specific gravity of less than 1 means that the material will float in water.
when veneer is manufactured into plywood the resulting product has a greater specific gravity than the veneer because of the cummulative influence. of a number of factors. these factors include the pressing conditions, the weight of bonding medium applied to a unit area of veneer before pressing.
specific gravity is a simple ratio between the weight of wood and the weight of water. for instance, the typical dried weight of a cubic-foot of hard maple is 45 lbs. and the weight of a cubic foot of water is 62.38 lbs. to calculate specific gravity, divide 45 by 62.38 = .72. substances with a sg of less than one will float.
since density of plywood is smaller than density of water, plywood floats. note: if you are familiar with vector addition, you can add downward vector of weight and upward vector of buoyancy. depending on size of these vectors, resultant vector could be directed upwards floating , or downwards sinking .
overview of materials for pvc, extruded, this property data is a summary of similar materials in the matweb database for the category 'pvc, extruded'. each property range of values reported is minimum and maximum values of appropriate matweb
some of the most significant properties of polyvinyl chloride pvc are: density: pvc is very dense compared to most plastics specific gravity around 1.4 economics: pvc is readily available and cheap. hardness: rigid pvc is very hard. strength: rigid pvc has extremely good tensile strength.
wood density chart. wood density and specific gravity. the following chart will tell you how much weight you can expect from your wood selection. a simple comparison of the lb/ft3 of cedar and any other species will tell you what you can expect in added weight. in the following chart chart 1 you will note that cedar weights 23 lbs/ft3.
specific gravity sp gr - aka relative density. the ratio of the density of a material at a given temperature to the density of an equal volume of water at the same temperature. the ratio of the density of a material at a given temperature to the density of an equal volume of water at the same temperature.